Capital markets are financial markets for buying and selling debt or equity-backed instruments over a period of one year. These markets are normally regulated by national supervisory bodies and participants are mostly authorised entities with limited access directly by the public. Entities hosting with platforms to facilitate trading on capital markets include stock exchanges, investment banks, and government departments. Participants are said to interact with each other (counterparties) at primary or secondary market
The process of issuance is a method used by issuer to raise long term funds and this is underwritten by an investment entity channelling funds provided by savers, depository institutions, and insurance/pension premiums paid by policy holders to form a financial instrument (security) to borrowers and investees. A characteristic of capital market is that it is a highly decentralised once underwritten mainly as stock (equity) market and bond market (government or corporate).
At primary market new stocks or bond issues are traded through an underwriter (mostly investment banks or central banks guaranteeing for its government) and participants seeking to raise long term funds are normally governments, banks, financial institutions, companies and high-net-wealth individuals. Strength and pricing of primary market depends secondary market participant willingness and estimated demand. Instruments are sold only once at primary market.
At secondary market instruments are normally traded with other participants rather than with issuer of financial instrument. Stock exchanges serve as platforms for trading secondary market instruments.
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